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Wednesday, July 27, 2011

sport car walpepaer, green matalie 2013

The term was originally introduced in the 1930s and applied to lighter, more streamlined closed body coachwork fitted by car makers. Rover, for example, had Sports Saloon versions of several of their models.

In North America, most luxury import sedans are often considered "sport sedans" because of their higher performance, handling, and expensive available amenities relative to that of mass market cars. There is some price overlapping, for instance as an entry-level BMW 328i has a similar (manufacturer's) suggested retail price to a Toyota Camry XLE V6.

The term "sport sedan" also came into being, when comparing luxury import sedans (i.e. BMW, Audi, and Mercedes-Benz), which were smaller cars popular with young buyers that focused on performance and handling, to domestic luxury marques such as Cadillac and Lincoln, for older customers and which emphasized size and comfort. In the 1980s and 1990s, the change in consumer demographics towards smaller and sportier luxury cars, along with Japanese luxury brands, led to a decline in the prestige of domestic luxury marques, whose chief offerings were the Cadillac DeVille and Lincoln Town Car. However, since the 2000s, Cadillac and Lincoln have begun producing competitive models such as the Cadillac CTS and Lincoln LS. Buick was retained as General Motors's traditional luxury brand and emphasized comfort and amenities instead of driving experience.
Luxury performance sedans sold in North American have a smaller range of engines, tending towards the high-powered side, compared to their European lineups. For instance Mercedes-Benz advertises all of the 2009 US/Canadian models of the Mercedes-Benz C-Class as a "sport sedan", not just the high-performance C63 AMG.
In the midsize sedan category in North America, the 2008 Nissan Altima has been described as the sportiest in its classification, compared to the Honda Accord or Toyota Camry. The first-generation Mazda6 and Mazda3 were also known as sport sedans as well, when tested against other vehicles in their size class.

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Chevrolet Cobalt SS wallpaper 2014

The Cobalt SS is a line of three sport compact versions of the Chevrolet Cobalt built on the General Motors Delta platform at Lordstown Assembly in Ohio, United States. Featuring two boosted and intercooled inline-4 Ecotec engines, as well as a third naturally aspirated engine, the line was GM's first foray into the tuner market.
The car launched with a 205 hp (153 kW) supercharged 2.0 L engine in late 2004 as a 2005 model, paired with the F35 Manual transmission of GM Europe. The following year, a naturally aspirated 1SS model equipped with GM's new 2.4 L,171 hp (128 kW) engine was added; it had both automatic and manual transmission options. After three model years the supercharged car was discontinued, but a second 2.0 L engine exclusively mated to the F35, with power upped to 260 hp (194 kW) by way of a turbocharger, revived the Cobalt SS in the second quarter of 2008 (See timeline).

The powertrain of the Cobalt SS received generally positive reviews, especially the turbocharged version, but the car was criticized for poor interior quality and exterior styling that was too reminiscent of its predecessor, the Cavalier.Reports surfaced in May 2009 that General Motors planned to eliminate the Cobalt SS as soon as December 2009,but they proved to be untrue. Production continued, but ordering options for late 2010 models were limited, and production of all Cobalts ended in June 2010. The car has been replaced by the European-developed and Korean-designed Cruze, but a high performance version to directly replace the Cobalt SS has not yet been announced, nor any possible powertrains.

ferrari wallpaper

Red ferrari wallpapers

The drag coefficient is a common metric in automotive design pertaining to aerodynamic effects. As aerodynamic drag increases as the square of speed, a low value is preferable to a high one. As about 60% of the power required to cruise at highway speeds is used to overcome aerodynamic effects, minimizing drag translates directly into improved fuel efficiency.


Reducing drag is also a factor in sports car design, where fuel efficiency is less of a factor, but where low drag helps a car achieve a high top speed. However, there are other important aspects of aerodynamics that affect cars designed for high speed, including racing cars. Notably, it is important to minimize lift, hence increasing downforce, to avoid the car becoming airborne.
Increasing the downforce pushes the car down onto the race track—allowing higher cornering speed. It is also important to maximize aerodynamic stability: some racing cars have tested well at particular "attack angles", yet performed catastrophically, i.e. flipping over, when hitting a bump or experiencing turbulence from other vehicles (most notably the Mercedes-Benz CLR). For best cornering and racing performance, as required in Formula One cars, downforce and stability are crucial and these cars must attempt to maximize downforce and maintain stability while attempting to minimize the overall Cd value.
The average modern automobile achieves a drag coefficient of between 0.30 and 0.35. SUVs, with their typically boxy shapes and larger frontal area, typically achieve a Cd of 0.35–0.45. A very gently inclined windshield gives a lower drag coefficient but has safety disadvantages, including reduced driver visibility. Certain cars can achieve figures of 0.25–0.30, although sometimes designers deliberately increase drag to reduce lift.

Lamborghini wallpaper

Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A commonly referred to as Lamborghini is an Italian automaker. The company was founded by manufacturing magnate Ferruccio Lamborghini in 1963, with the objective of producing a refined grand touring car to compete with established offerings from marques like Ferrari.

The company's first models were released in the mid-1960s, and were noted for their refinement, power and comfort. Lamborghini gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, which established mid-engine design as the standard layout for high-performance cars of the era. After a decade of rapid growth, hard times befell the company in the mid-1970s, as sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 world financial downturn and oil crisis. After going through bankruptcy and three changes in ownership, Lamborghini came under the corporate umbrella of the Chrysler Corporation in 1987. The American company failed to return the automaker to profitability and sold it to Indonesian interests in 1994. Lamborghini's lack of success continued through the 1990s, until the company was sold in 1998 to Audi, a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group, a German automotive concern. Audi's ownership marked the beginning of a period of stability and increased productivity for Lamborghini, with sales increasing nearly tenfold over the course of the 2000s, peaking in record sales in 2007 and 2008. The world financial crisis in the late 2000s negatively affected luxury car makers worldwide, and saw Lamborghini's sales drop back to pre-2006 levels.

Assembly of Lamborghini cars continues to take place at the automaker's ancestral home in Sant'Agata Bolognese, where engine and automobile production lines run side-by-side at the company's single factory. Fewer than 3,000 cars roll off the production line each year. The company currently offers two variations of a single model, the V10-powered Gallardo coupé and roadster. The flagship V12-powered Murciélago coupé and roadster were discontinued at the end of 2010. Its successor, the Lamborghini Aventador, was released on 28 February 2011.
Automobili Lamborghini was founded by Ferruccio Lamborghini, the child of viticulturists from the comune (township) of Renazzo di Cento, Province of Ferrara, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
After serving as a mechanic in the Regia Aeronautica,during World War II, Lamborghini went into business building tractors out of leftover military hardware from the war effort. By the mid-1950s, Lamborghini's tractor company, Lamborghini Trattori S.p.A.

had become one of the largest agricultural equipment manufacturers in the country. He was also the owner of a successful gas heater and air conditioning manufacturer.

Lamborghini's wealth allowed him to cultivate a childhood interest in cars, owning a number of luxury automobiles including Alfa Romeos, Lancias, Maseratis, and a Mercedes Benz. He purchased his first Ferrari, a 250GT, in 1958, and went on to own several more. Lamborghini was fond of the Ferraris, but considered them too noisy and rough to be proper road cars, likening them to repurposed track cars. Lamborghini decided to pursue an automobile manufacturing venture, with the goal of bringing to life his vision of a perfect grand tourer.

Thursday, July 21, 2011

Car Design News 20015

A concept vehicle or show vehicle is a car made to showcase new styling and or new technology. They are often shown at motor shows to gauge customer reaction to new and radical designs which may or may not have a chance of being produced.
General Motors designer Harley Earl is generally credited with inventing the concept car, and did much to popularize it through its traveling Motorama shows of the 1950s.
Concept cars never go into production directly; in modern times all would have to undergo many changes before the design is finalized for the sake of practicality, safety and cost. A "production-intent" vehicle, as opposed to a concept vehicle, serves this purpose.

They are also known as prototype cars, but should not be confused with prototype race cars such as the Le Mans Prototype


Concept cars are often radical in engine or design. Some use non-traditional, exotic, or expensive materials, ranging from paper to carbon fiber to refined alloys. Others have unique layouts, such as gullwing doors, 3 or 6 (or more) wheels, or special abilities not usually found on cars. Because of these often impractical or unprofitable leanings, many concept cars never get past scale models, or even drawings in computer design. Other more traditional concepts can be developed into fully drivable (operational) vehicles with a working drivetrain and accessories. The state of most concept cars lies somewhere in between and does not represent the final product. A very small proportion of concept cars are functional to any useful extent, some cannot move safely at anything above 10 mph.
Inoperative "mock-ups" are usually made of wax, clay, metal, fiberglass, plastic or a combination thereof.

If drivable, the drivetrain is often borrowed from a production vehicle from the same company, or may have defects and imperfections in design. They can also be quite refined, such as General Motors' Cadillac Sixteen concept.
After a concept car's useful life is over, the cars are usually destroyed. Some survive, however, either in a company's museum or hidden away in storage. One unused but operational concept car that languished for years in the North Hollywood, California shop of car customizer George Barris, Ford Motor Company's "Lincoln Futura" from 1954, received a new lease on life as the Batmobile in the Batman series that debuted in 1966 on the ABC Television Network.

Sunday, July 17, 2011

unic car matalie 20025

Aristotle wrote a treatise about memory: De memoria et reminiscentia. To improve recollection, he advised that a systematic search should be made and that practise was helpful. He suggested grouping the items to be remembered in threes and then concentrating upon the central member of each triad.
Throughout history, the possession of an exceptional memory has been seen as a symbol of power and achievement. As today's research focuses on human health and longevity, studies look at memory deficits and age-related memory loss with the aim of uncovering new explanations and treatment techniques to improve memory.
The knowledge gained from this research can be transferred to general memory improvement methodology and training. Neuroimaging as well as cognitive neuroscience have provided neurobiological evidence supporting holistic ways in which one can improve memory.
Throughout history, the possession of an exceptional memory has been seen as a symbol of power and achievement. As today's research focuses on human health and longevity, studies look at memory deficits and age-related memory loss with the aim of uncovering new explanations and treatment techniques to improve memory. The knowledge gained from this research can be transferred to general memory improvement methodology and training. Neuroimaging as well as cognitive neuroscience have provided neurobiological evidence supporting holistic ways in which one can improve memory.
Understanding that the brain can change through experience is the first step to improving memory. It was once thought that the adult brain was a fixed entity, however it has been found that the brain is actually a highly flexible and plastic organ that changes throughout life. Every experience, thought, emotion and behaviour that is produced causes a corresponding change in the neurocircuitry of the brain.
Neural plasticity is the mechanism by which the brain encodes experience and learns new behaviours. It is also the mechanism by which the damaged brain relearns lost behaviour in response to rehabilitation. Experience-dependent neuroplasticity suggests that the brain changes in response to what it experiences. The most well known example of this is represented by London taxi cab drivers.
London taxi cab drivers undergo extensive training for 2-4 years, learning and memorizing the layout of streets, street names and many different places within the city. Not only are they required to have this knowledge in their brain at all times, they must also find the quickest route to their customer’s desired destination. After studying London taxi cab drivers, evidence showed greater grey matter volume in the posterior hippocampus, an area in the brain involved heavily in memory. The longer taxi drivers navigated in London the greater the posterior hippocampal gray matter volume.
Therefore, it is suggested that there may be a capacity for plastic change in the structure of the hippocampus in healthy adult humans that can accommodate the spatial representation of a very large and complex environment. The results from the present study continue to permit the view that learning, representing, and using a spatial representation of a highly complex and large-scale environment is a primary function of the hippocampus in humans such that this brain region might adapt structurally to accommodate its elaboration.The correlation between time driving and hippocampal grey matter suggests that experience drives the changes observed.

car wallpapers.2013 of matalie

Car Design News is the leading online news, picture and information service for the international automotive design community. It carries information and photos of: new production and concept cars;
design reviews and design development features; interviews with senior designers; coverage of the major international auto shows (including a Twitter feed during the press preview days); coverage of design competitions; coverage of graduate student shows from most of the leading automotive design colleges worldwide; and extensive photo galleries of hi-res images.

Much of the information is free, with paid membership available to studios or individuals (with a discount for students) to allow access to detailed content and downloads of hi-res images.

Car Design News has a team of editors and has original content provided by both design professionals and correspondents based around the world. It has grown to be considered as one of the leading reference sources for the car design industry, and has subscribers (members) including most major automotive manufacturers.

Core 77 covers many fields of design and particularly industrial design. Car Design News focuses on a subset of industrial design, car design.

The contributor and readership profile is otherwise very similar.
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